Missouri - HE K-12 curriculum—personal health and wellness (ES): Curricula

Area: 
Curricula
Policy Type: 
regulation; standard
Summary: 

State law addresses personal health and wellness.

5 CSR 20-200.260 Academic Standards

(G) Health/Physical Education. In health/physical education, students in Missouri public schools will acquire a solid foundation which includes knowledge of-

    1. Structures of, functions of, and relationships among human body systems;
    1. Principles and practices of physical and mental health (such as personal health habits, nutrition, stress management);
    1. Diseases and methods for prevention, treatment and control;
    1. Principles of movement and physical fitness;
    1. Methods used to assess health, reduce risk factors, and avoid high risk behaviors (such as violence, tobacco, alcohol and other drug use);
    1. Consumer health issues (such as the effects of mass media and technology on safety and health); and
    1. Responses to emergency situations.

HEALTH EDUCATION GRADE-LEVEL EXPECTATIONS: Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, May 2007

Functions and Interrelationships of Systems

  1. Structure and Functions of the Body
    A. Sensory System
    • Grade K: Identify the five senses
    • Grade 1: Illustrate the functions of the five senses (e.g., eyes to see)
    • Grade 3: Classify the five sense organs and their parts (e.g., iris, ear canal, olfactory bulb, taste buds, nasal cavity) and explain how the five senses are used in personal and social environment (e.g., gathering information, making observations, drawing conclusions)
    • Name the major parts, functions and disorders of the sensory organs (e.g., near-sightedness, far-sightedness, hearing loss)
    • Grade 9-12: Investigate disorders, their treatments, and prevention techniques to maintain a healthy sensory system (e.g., hearing loss, glaucoma, near and far-sightedness, hallitosis, numbness, tingling)

B. Muscular System

  • Grade K: Tell why people have muscles
  • Grade 1: Identify a muscle in each region of the body (e.g., arms, torso, legs)
  • Grade 2: Describe the functions of the muscular system and provide examples (e.g., muscles to pull on bones to move the joints, move food through the body)
  • Grade 3: Recognize the major muscles of the muscular system (e.g., deltoid, tricep, abdominal, quadricep)
  • Grade 4: Describe how muscles affect overall health (e.g., burning calories, good posture, healthy heart)
  • Grade 5: Explain ways in which the muscular and other body systems work together
  • Grade 6: Classify the three different types of muscle tissue (smooth, cardiac, skeletal) and differentiate between voluntary and involuntary muscle movement
  • Grade 7: Explain how muscles work in pairs for movement to occur and provide examples (e.g., flexors and extensors, bicep contracts and tricep extends to flex your elbow bringing hand to shoulder)
  • Grade 9-12: Investigate disorders, their treatment, and prevention techniques to maintain a healthy muscular system (e.g., muscular dystrophy, muscle cramps, tendonitis, muscle strains)

C. Skeletal System

  • Grade K: Tell why people have bones
  • Grade 1: Identify a bone in each region of the body (i.e., head, arms, torso, and legs)
  • Grade 2: Describe the functions of the skeletal system (e.g., protects body parts, supports the framework, works with muscles)
  • Grade 3: Categorize and label different bones by body parts (e.g., leg-tibia, arms-humerus, head-skull, torso-spine)
  • Grade 4: Identify the different types of bones (i.e., long, flat, wide, short, and curved) and their functions (mineral storage, calcium, red blood cells, growth plates)
  • Grade 6: Differentiate among the types of joints in the skeletal system (e.g., ball and socket, pivot, moveable and immovable)
  • Grade 7: Explain how the skeletal system supports and protects other body systems (e.g., circulatory, muscular, nervous)
  • Grade 9-12: Investigate disorders, their treatment, and prevention techniques to maintain a healthy skeletal system (e.g., osteoporosis, arthritis, sprain, scoliosis)

D. Integumentary System (Skin)

  • Grade 2: Describe the functions of the skin (e.g., protection)
  • Grade 3: Identify the major components and functions of the integumentary system (i.e., skin, hair, nails)
  • Grade 4: Determine the cause/effect of healthy lifestyle choices as they relate to the three layers of skin (nutrition, hydration, exercise)
  • Grade 5: Formulate ways to protect the skin from environmental damage
    • Explain ways in which the integumentary system works with the sensory organs
    • Recognize the importance of self and regular check-ups for skin abnormalities

E. Cardio-respiratory/Circulatory System

  • Grade K: Show the location of the heart
  • Grade 1: Predict what happens to your heart rate during physical exercise
  • Grade 2: Identify the major components (i.e., blood vessels, heart) and functions (e.g., transport blood throughout the body) of the cardio-respiratory system
    • Name the major functions of the cardio-respiratory system
  • Grade 3: Identify the cause and effect of lifestyles choices (e.g., activity, diet, tobacco use) on the cardio-respiratory system (e.g., healthy heart vs. unhealthy heart, blocked blood vessels, lung capacity)
    • Identify the cause and effect of an active vs. inactive lifestyle on the cardio-respiratory system (e.g., healthy vs. unhealthy heart and lungs)
  • Grade 4: Show the effects of lifestyle choices (e.g., high fat diet, physeical activity) on the cardio-respiratory system and relate how the cardio-respiratory system affects quality of life
  • Grade 5: Identify the types of blood vessel (i.e., arteries, veins, capillaries)
    • Identify the chambers of the heart (i.e., artrium, ventricle)
    • Identify the types of blood cells (i.e., red, white, platelets)
    • Explain ways in which the cardio-respiratory system interacts with other systems
  • Grade 7: Analyze how aerobic exercise impacts an individual physically, mentally, and emotionally
  • Grade 9-12: Investigate disorders, their treatments, and prevention techniques to maintain a healthy cardio-respiratory system (e.g., high blood pressure, anemia, hemophilia, sickle cell, asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia)

F. Respiratory System

  • Grade 1: Identify the basic components of the respiratory system (e.g., nose, mouth, lungs)
  • Grade 2: Identify additional components of the respiratory system (e.g., trachea, bronchial tubes, diaphragm, alveoli)
  • Grade 3: Identify common problems, symptoms, and treatment of breathing disorders (e.g., asthma, bronchitis)
    • Identify the cause and effect of lifestyle choices on the respiratory system (e.g., inactivity, tobacco)
  • Grade 4: Describe the function of the respiratory system (e.g., exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen) between air sacs and capillaries)
  • Grade 6: Illustrate air flow through the respiratory system and it's relationship to the circulatory system
  • Grade 7: Measure respiratory rates during inactivity and activity

G. Nervous System

  • Grade 3: Identify the major components of the nervous system (i.e., brain, spinal cord, nerves)
  • Grade 4: Define and distinquish between short-term and long-term memory
  • Grade 5: Summarize the functions of the nervous systerm (e.g., sending and receiving messages, regulating body functions), serving as the body's control center for five senses (emotions, speech, coordination, balance, and learning)
  • Grade 6: Investigate how environment affects learning
    • Distinguish between the CNS and PNS (Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System)
  • Grade 7: Describe how healthy lifestyle choices (e.g., exercise, diet, sleep) affect the functioning of the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system (e.g., exercise increases endorphins, stress relief, mental alterness)
  • Grade 8: Analyze how learning is influenced by the brain's short term and long term memory, environmental learning styles and learning strategies (e.g., multiple intelligences, cooperative learning, hypothesis, inquiry)
  • Grade 9-12: Investigate disorders, their treatment, and prevention techniques to maintain a healthy nervous system (e.g., mental disorders, spinal cord injuries, cerebral palsy, meningitis, chemical imbalances, hives, shingles, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's, epilepsy)

H. Digestive System

  • Grade 3: Identify the major components (e.g., mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine) and functions of the digestive system
  • Grade 4: Describe the processes of the digestive system (e.g. how the teeth, tongue, and saliva begin the digestive process) and how they are affected by lifestyle choices (e.g., diet, activity level, dental care)
  • Grade 5: Explain ways in which the digestive and other body systems work together
  • Grade 6: Identify the function of each organ in the digestive system (e.g., stomach-digestive juices, pancreas-insulin, gall bladder-storage of bile, liver-removes toxins, small intestines-absorbs nutrients, large intestines-removes solid waste) as it relates to overall health
  • Grades 9-12: List the most common disorders, describe how to treat them and prevention techniques to maintain a healthy digestive system (e.g., ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome, Crohn's Disease, diarrhea, constipation, gall stones, colon cancer)

I. Urinary/Excretory System

  • Grade 4: Label the major components (i.e., kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra) and the functions of the urinary/excretory system (e.g., removes liquid waste from the body)
  • Grade 5: Explain the ways in which the urinary/excretory system works with other body systems
  • Grade 7: Relate how health behaviors affect the urinary/excretory system
  • Grades 9-12: Investigate disorders, their treatment, and prevention techniques to maintain a healthy urinary/excretory system (e.g., kidney stones, urinary tract infections, nephritis)

J. Endocrine System

  • Grade 4: Identify and describe the basic structure and functions of the endocrine system including growth (pituitary), reproduction (ovaries, testes), fight or flight responses (adrenal), energy, metabolism (thyroid)
  • Grade 5: Explain ways in which the endocrine and nervous systems work together
  • Grade 6: Describe how the endocrine system affects all other body systems
  • Grade 8: Relate a function of each endocrine gland (e.g., thyroid-metabolism; pituitary-master hormonal gland and height; adrenal-fight or flight; ovaries-eggs; testes-sperm) and how it is impacted by lifestyle choices
  • Grades 9-12: Investigate disorders, their treatments, and prevention techniques to maintain a healthy endocrine system (e.g., thyroid cancer, type II diabetes, chemical imbalances)
    • List the causes of type II diabetes and describe management procedures and prevention techniques

K. Reproductive System

  • Grade 4: Identify and describe the basic structure and function of the male and female reproductive system (e.g., menstrual cycle, nocturnal emissions)
  • Grade 5: Research and analyze the physical, emotional, social, and intellectual changes occuring during puberty
  • Grade 6: Describe how hormones are responsible for the development of secondary sex characteristics and for the production and release of reproductive cells, allowing the opportunity for fertilization
  • Grade 7: Distinguish between dominant and recessive traits
  • Grade 8: Describe the impact hereditary and lifestyle choices have on the reproductive system functions and disease formation
    • Explain how to maintain a healthy reproductive system
    • Identify cancer signs and symptoms and explain the importance of monthly self-examinations
  • Grades 9-12: Recognize normal vs. abnormal conditions of the reproductive system
    • Explain how the following affect the functioning of the reproductive system: ovarian cysts, HPV/cervical cancer, premenstrual syndrome, infertility, ovarian cancer, testicular cancer, and prostrate cancer
    • Discuss the importance of routine physical examinations and tests (e.g., pap smears, mammograms, prostrate examination) to reduce the risks of problems related to cancer and other chronic diseases

L. Lymphatic-Immune System

  • Grade 4: Describe how to keep the immune system healthy and explain the principles of vaccination and immunization
  • Grade 6: Label the major components (i.e., lymph nodes, lymph vessels, tonsils, thymus, spleen) and identify the functions of the lymphatic system (e.g., recognizes and destroys invading pathogens, immunity)
  • Grades 9-12: Investigate disorders, their treatments, and prevention techniques to maintain a healthy lymphatic/immune system (e.g., common cold, influenza, tonsilitis, strep throat)
    Source: Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education
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