State law authorizes the placement of local law enforcement or security personnel and establishes clear guidelines and safeguards regarding the appropriate role of officers on school campuses.
Kansas Administrative Regulations 16-16-1. Definitions.
(a) "Campus police officer" shall mean a school security officer designated by the board of education of any school district pursuant to K.S.A. 72-8222, and amendments thereto.
(b) "Law enforcement officer" and "police officer" shall mean a full-time or part-time salaried officer or employee of the state, a county, or a city whose duties include the prevention or detection of crime and the enforcement of criminal or traffic law of Kansas or of any Kansas municipality. These terms shall include a campus police officer.
(c) "Law enforcement officer primarily assigned to a school" shall mean any of the following:
(1) A campus police officer;
(2) a school resource officer; or
(3) a law enforcement officer jointly designated by a superintendent and the head of a law enforcement agency.
(d) "School district" shall mean a unified school district organized under the laws of Kansas.
(e) "School resource officer" shall mean a law enforcement officer or police officer who is employed by a local law enforcement agency and is assigned to a school district through an agreement between the local law enforcement agency and the school district.
(f) "Superintendent" shall mean the superintendent of schools appointed by the board of education of a school district.
(g) "Superintendent's designee" shall mean a person who is appointed by the superintendent and who is licensed by the Kansas state board of education and employed by the superintendent's school district but is not a law enforcement officer.
Kansas Statutes 72-6143. Information regarding identity of specified pupils, disclosure requirements; criminal acts, reports to law enforcement agencies and state board of education; school safety and security policies, memorandum of understanding, availability; civil liability, immunity.
(i) The state board of education shall require that the superintendent of schools in each school district or the superintendent’s designee develop, approve and submit to the state board of education a memorandum of understanding developed in collaboration with relevant stakeholders, including law enforcement agencies, the courts and the district and county attorneys, establishing clear guidelines for how and when school-based behaviors are referred to law enforcement or the juvenile justice system with the goal of reducing such referrals and protecting public safety. The state board of education shall provide a report annually to the department of corrections and to the office of judicial administration compiling school district compliance and summarizing the content of each memorandum of understanding.
Kansas Statutes 72-6146. School security officers and campus police officers.
(a) The board of education of any school district or the board of trustees of any community college may employ school security officers, and may designate any one or more of such school security officers as a campus police officer, to aid and supplement law enforcement agencies of the state and of the city and county in which the school district or community college is located.
(b) The protective function of school security officers shall extend to all property of the school district or community college and the protection of students, teachers and other employees together with the property of such persons on or in any school or community college property or areas adjacent thereto, or while attending or located at the site of any school or community college-sponsored function. While engaged in the protective functions specified in this section, each school security officer shall possess and exercise all general law enforcement powers, rights, privileges, protections and immunities in every county in which there is located any part of the territory of the school district or community college.
(c) The protective function of campus police officers shall extend to all property of the school district or community college and the protection of students, teachers and other employees together with the property of such persons on or in any school or community college property or areas adjacent thereto, or while attending or located at the site of any school or community college-sponsored function. While engaged in the protective functions specified in this section, each campus police officer shall possess and exercise all general law enforcement powers, rights, privileges, protections and immunities in every county in which there is located any part of the territory of the school district or community college, provided that such officer does not violate the memorandum of understanding approved by the superintendent of the school district pursuant to K.S.A. 2017 Supp. 72-6143(i), and amendments thereto.
(d) Campus police officers shall have the power and authority of law enforcement officers:
(1) On property owned, occupied or operated by the school district or community college or at the site of a function sponsored by the school district or community college;
(2) on the streets, property and highways immediately adjacent to and coterminous with property described in subsection (d)(1);
(3) within the city or county where property described in subsection (d)(1) is located, as necessary to protect the health, safety and welfare of students and faculty of the school district or community college, with appropriate agreement by local law enforcement agencies. Such agreements shall include provisions, defining the geographical scope of the jurisdiction conferred, circumstances requiring the extended jurisdiction, scope of law enforcement powers and duration of the agreement. Before any agreement entered into pursuant to this section shall take effect, it shall shall be approved by the governing body of the city or county, or both, having jurisdiction where such property is located, and the board of education or board of trustees involved;
(4) with appropriate notification of and coordination with local law enforcement agencies, within the city or county where property described in subsection (d)(1) or (d)(2) is located, when there is reason to believe that a violation of a state law, county resolution or city ordinance has occurred on such property, as necessary to investigate and arrest persons for such a violation;
(5) when in fresh pursuit of a person; and
(6) when transporting persons in custody to an appropriate facility, wherever it may be located.
(e) In addition to enforcement of state law, county resolutions and city ordinances, campus police officers shall enforce rules and regulations and rules and policies of the board of trustees or school board, whether or not violation thereof constitutes a criminal offense. While on duty, campus police officers shall wear and display publicly a badge of office. No such badge shall be required to be worn by any plain clothes investigator or departmental administrator, but any such officer shall present proper credentials and identification when required in the performance of such officer's duties. In performance of any of the powers, duties and functions authorized by this section, K.S.A. 22-2401a, and amendments thereto, or any other law, campus police officers shall have the same rights, protections and immunities afforded other law enforcement officers.
(f) The board of education of each school district shall adopt a policy providing for notification of a student's parents or guardians whenever the student is taken into custody by a campus police officer.
Kansas Statutes 72-6152. Definitions.
(r) “School resource officer” means a law enforcement officer or police officer employed by a local law enforcement agency who is assigned to a district through an agreement between the local law enforcement agency and the district.