State law requires districts to address indoor air quality in schools.
West Virginia Administrative Code 126-172-3. Handbook on Planning School Facilities.
1101 THERMAL ENVIRONMENT The school facility is designed, constructed, equipped, and maintained in a manner, which provides for maximum safety, comfort, and economy. The heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems in all school facilities shall be in compliance with the requirements of applicable regulatory agencies. 1101.01 Minimum functions of the space conditioning system employed to maintain the proper thermal environment in a school building are as follows. A. Supply heat for warm-up and balance heat losses from the room to the outside. B. Supply conditioned and dehumidified outside air to meet ventilation requirements. C. In special cases, the system must remove injurious or noxious gases, vapors, fumes, and dust by the induction of outside air, filtration, and/or exhausting contaminants. D. Minimum outside design criteria
- Winter - 0°F db
- Summer - ASHRAE 1% Climatological Data (Cooling and Dehumidification Data) E. Indoor occupied and design criteria
- Winter - 70°F, humidity </=60% rH
- Summer - 72°F, humidity </=60% rH F. Include the inside and outside design conditions on the equipment schedule sheet of the design development/construction drawings. 1101.02 HVAC systems should be of sufficient rated capacity to meet the building requirements under maximum design conditions including local weather conditions as per 1101.01. This will avoid sustained operation beyond the capacity of the system. HVAC systems shall be designed to be operational year round. Systems should not be shut down when the building is unoccupied. 1101.021 Operative Temperature It is desirable that HVAC systems provide a maximum temperature gradient not to exceed 2°F from floor to 60 inches above the floor. 1101.022 Air supply Space conditioning systems will have sufficient capacity to provide for introduction of conditioned and dehumidified outside air. The amount of outside air will meet guidelines set forth by current ASHRAE Standard 62. 1101.023 Air Movement Distribution of air shall consider effective air cleaning, temperature control, low noise level, acceptable humidity conditions and proper air distribution. A. Air motion should generally fall within a range of 25 to 50 feet per minute and should be maintained at a constant rate, unless a variable air volume (VAV) system is used with a pattern that prevents temperature stratification or undesirable air currents. B. Special provisions may have to be made in the window zone to overcome the effects of cold window down draft. C. Since positive pressure is required in conditioned areas, with the exceptions of bathrooms, custodial closets, science areas, and other areas that may have air contamination, approximately 5-10 percent more air should be introduced than is exhausted, thus minimizing infiltration. The designers should perform an air balance calculation to determine all the outside air supplied into the building against all air exhausted from the building to verify building overall space pressure relationships are maintained. The amount of excess outside air should be determined using appropriate engineering practices for the specific application. If duct liner is used it shall be rated for a minimum velocity of 5000 fpm, and be treated with an EPA approved anti-microbial agent proven to resist microbial growth as determined by ASTM G21 and G22. Use of duct liner shall be limited to the first 15 feet or to the first joint past the first elbow in the supply and return ductwork, whichever is the shortest distance. Duct liner beyond 15 feet is allowable in gymnasiums or other areas where exposed ductwork is used for budgetary reasons. D. Velocity of air across cooling coils shall not exceed 500 fpm to prevent moisture carryover. E. Room temperature sensors or thermostats located in occupied spaces may have the capability for local temperature set point adjustment to regulate space temperatures, but may not have the control capability to allow the occupants to control the fan operation. F. The condensate traps made of non-corrosive materials or copper shall be designed to operate at greater than 1″ w.g. more than the static pressure of the HVAC unit. G. If flexible duct is to be used, the duct shall be of the internal corrugated metallic type or internal high-pressure fabric with a pressure rating of at least 10″ w.g. positive and 5″ w.g. negative with a bursting pressure of at least 2 times the working pressure, and externally insulated. The duct shall be rated for a minimum velocity of 5000 fpm. There shall be a maximum of one (1) 90° bend and a maximum length of six (6) feet. H. Include in the selection of the grilles, registers, and diffusers the NC (noise coefficient) rating that meets the ASA recommendations. Include the design NC rating for each device in the equipment schedule and/or the specifications. 1101.024 Humidity Control Levels in the space shall meet the requirements set forth in Sections 1101.01E1 & E2. An automatic mode of operation through the building control system shall maintain the humidity levels below 60%. 1101.025 Air Filtration Filtering, washing, screening, absorption, or other cleaning methods may be used. The HVAC units should be installed with the most appropriate filtration available for the type of equipment selected. It is desirable that HVAC units be designed with a minimum ASHRAE dust spot filter efficiency of 80% (MERV 13) but in no case shall the filter efficiency be less than 30% (MERV 8). The filters efficiency rating shall meet the latest ASHRAE Test Standard 52.1 and 52.2. 1101.03 Consideration should be given for a fully integrated and distributed network DDC control system with remote access to be used to control major HVAC equipment and outside lighting in new school facilities and full building HVAC renovations. If a DDC system is used, a PC terminal with a graphics interface program shall be used to access the control system and shall be located within one of the county school facilities. This control system shall use control logic to maximize energy efficiencies. All HVAC zones shall be independently operated and controlled. 1101.031 The WVDE OSFac shall provide county maintenance personnel additional training, if necessary, on the equipment and it's controls at the site of the installation per WV Code § 18-9E-3f after appropriate training per Policy 6200 has been completed. 1101.032 After completion of the required training, the WVDE OSFac's staff shall provide the County Board a report summarizing the training that was completed and a plan for continuing education of the county's HVAC staff. If sufficient staff is not available to the county to perform maintenance on HVAC systems, the WVDE staff shall assist the county in the development of an immediate and long range maintenance plan to ensure that HVAC systems are maintained and operated according to the manufacturer's recommendations per WV Code 18-9E-3g. Designers will be required to ensure that the integrated training of all manufacturers' components as a single HVAC system is provided. 1101.04 Boards of education, before accepting the mechanical contractor's work, shall receive complete training regarding the operation and maintenance of the mechanical equipment and should insist that a designated school employee(s) be given direct instruction by one or more competent representatives of the contractor or equipment firms. The training shall be completed prior to the turnover of the building to the Board of Education. For major mechanical and electrical equipment and systems (including HVAC control systems) there shall be a minimum of 1 day follow-up training at 6 months after facility turnover. All training shall be videotaped and turned over to the county board of education. Designers shall specify the time duration of each specific training session required. The WVDE OSF shall be notified two weeks prior to training. 1101.041 The HVAC bid documents shall require a two year full maintenance contract commencing at the issuance of the HVAC substantial completion certification. The WVDE OSFac shall support the training and service contractors for county HVAC personnel during the first year maintenance and service agreement period to assure that the county personnel fully understand the HVAC system as a fully integrated system. The WVDE Office of School Facilities and Transportation HVAC Technicians shall review the preventive maintenance plan developed by the service contractor that will be implemented after the two year maintenance program expires. 1101.05 Inspection of Systems (Testing, Adjusting and Balancing) Designers shall provide TAB contract documents to the counties for bidding independently of the construction documents in accordance with WV State Code. Specifications for TAB procedures shall include requirements for acoustical measurements to verify ASA guidelines. 1101.051 The county Board of Education should consider a commissioning agent to assure that the HVAC system is designed and installed in accordance with the county's requirements. The SBA may designate the necessity for a commissioning agent on complex renovations or new schools. The standards of services for commissioning agents are set forth in SBA policy. 1101.06 Indoor Air Quality Standards A. There shall be no open-flame, fuel burning heaters in student and staff occupied spaces. Direct gas fired 100% outside air makeup units for kitchen hoods or specialty locations may be considered providing they include carbon monoxide monitoring and alarming and are only used for 100% outside air makeup applications. This equipment shall be located in enclosed rooms or cabinets using outside air for combustion and be properly vented to the outside in a manner that exhausts all flue gases using appropriate piping as per ASHRAE, NFPA 54, and AGA standards B. Outside air intakes shall be located no closer than 15 feet or the standards set forth by ASHRAE Standard 62, whichever is greater, to stacks, exhaust, vents, motor vehicles and other sources of contaminates to minimize cross contamination. Distance requirements dictated by ASHRAE Standard 62 for outside air intakes from the ground and level shall also be observed. Stacks shall be designed to exhaust flue gas away from the building. C. Electric powered carbon monoxide monitor/alarm shall be installed in each area that produces combustion gases. The carbon monoxide monitor/alarm shall be tied into the building control system and alarm when activated. D. Outside air dampers shall fully close when the units are off and maintain the minimum required outside air in accordance with ASHRAE Standard 62 during occupied operation in all areas. E. Heat Recovery systems are recommended for 100% outside air systems. All heat recovery systems shall be constructed to limit cross over contamination. F. It is desired that return air dampers should be sized to produce air velocities of 1500 to 2000 fpm for thorough mixing. The damper should be set such that any deflection of air is towards the outside air to create maximum turbulence and mixing. The mixing damper shall extend across the full width of the unit even though the physical location of the return duct indicates that it could enter through the side to eliminate stratification. G. The HVAC cabinet insulation shall have a non-porous facing on the side exposed to the air stream in areas of potential moisture buildup (cooling coil, outside/mixed air section, etc.). The outside air ductwork located indoors shall be externally lined only. H. All drain pans shall be double sloped to the drain outlet, the drain outlet is to be flush with the bottom of the drain pan, and meet the requirements of ASHRAE Standard 62. 1101.07 HVAC System It will be the responsibility of the HVAC design professional working with and in collaboration and cooperation with the WVDE, SBA and the LEA to design a system that enhances indoor air quality, thermal comfort, and maximizes energy efficiency of the facility prior to the approval of the system by the WVDE and the SBA. A. The county school system shall be provided an opportunity to select existing or desired brand of equipment through base bids and alternates in bid documents to accommodate capability of current system. B. All systems shall have a detailed sequence of operation written in the specifications by the HVAC design engineer. All set points, differentials, lockouts, etc. shall be defined in the sequence of operation. The sequence of operation shall include the following as a minimum: occupied/unoccupied, economizer control, morning warm-up/cool-down, dehumidification, summertime low-load operation, optimizing start/stop, demand controlled ventilation, fan control/operation, and alarms. C. HVAC systems shall include the following criteria:
- Air velocities across HVAC cooling coils should not exceed 500 fpm. The coils shall have a maximum of 12 fins per inch, when possible.
- HVAC systems should utilize modulating or staged heating with a minimum of 2 stages. HVAC units utilizing two staged heating should have a minimum turn down capacity of 2 to 1 and units with modulating heating capabilities should have a turn down capacity of at least 6 to 1. Modulating heat is the preferred heating method due to its ability to maintain more consistent room temperatures.
- Adjustable/temporary motor and fan sheaves shall be replaced with fixed sheaves at the completion of testing, adjusting, and balancing.
- Each classroom shall constitute a zone and have its own temperature control device that directly regulates room temperature.
- Temperature control devices in the classroom shall have minimum accuracy of ±1°F and humidity control devices of ±3% rH for a retrofitted system and ±0.5°F tolerance and ±3% rH for new systems.
- Fans should be selected for maximum efficiency that will yield minimum noise generation.
- Permanent I. D. labels on all HVAC and electrical equipment shall be installed. Labeling of electrical equipment shall include the equipment it serves.
- The mechanical engineer shall provide within the specifications for a contractor to include a preventative maintenance program for all HVAC equipment including: BAS software, listing of belts, filters, spare parts, nameplate data, recommended maintenance increments for preventative maintenance tasks, and training on preventative maintenance.
- A premixed chemical water tank shall be used for makeup water for all closed loop hydronic systems. Consider interfacing low fluid level alarm into BAS system when available.
- Provide lockable ball valves on expansion tanks.
- Provide pressure gauges on expansion tanks.
- Provide appropriate isolation valves on all equipment. Provide isolation valves on the supply and return piping on all equipment.
- Provide calibrated balancing valves on all hydronic equipment where required for balancing as per manufacturer's recommendations. Ball valves are not acceptable for balancing.
- Recommend providing stainless steel, ceramic, or fiberglass for basins and other surfaces in contact with condenser water in cooling towers.
- HVAC units that have multiple compressors shall have independent refrigerant circuits for each compressor.
- All drain ports on back-flow preventers, pressure relief valves, and safety valves shall be piped to a drain in accordance with the local plumbing code.
- All closed loop water systems shall use scale and corrosion inhibitors as a part of the general water treatment process.
- If a glycol solution is used in closed loop water systems, the use of ethylene glycol is prohibited for new systems.
- All open loop condenser water systems shall use biocide(s), scale and corrosion inhibitors as a part of the general water treatment process. These products shall be automatically controlled and fed as directed by a competent water treatment vendor. Water treatment controls for the open loop system shall consist of a conductivity controller, automatic blow-down valve, and chemical feed pump for each water treatment product to be fed. All water treatment controls equipment and chemicals shall be located in a temperature-controlled space in close proximity to the cooling tower.
- The blow-down drain for cooling towers and evaporative coolers shall be piped to an appropriate drain line.
- All water lines and chemical feed lines must be protected from freezing conditions by insulation and heat tracing.
- Specify all field devices and equipment to be mercury free.
- Diffusers and grilles shall not have balancing dampers. Balancing dampers shall be located in the ductwork not easily accessible by building occupants.
- Multiple HVAC units serving a common area should use control logic that prevents overlapping of heating and cool set points between HVAC units. All HVAC equipment with 3 phase electrical motors shall have phase monitors to automatically shut down the equipment during phase losses.
- Hail guards shall be required for all outdoor -mounted equipment with exposed condenser coils when equipment is subject to hail damage.
- Major roof mounted HVAC equipment shall be accessible via interior roof hatches or doorways.
- Provide a means to meet HVAC system requirements in specialty areas (i.e. elevator equipment rooms, technology rooms) that require extended HVAC operation without operating large central equipment for only a small area of the facility. Consider operating dual systems to maximize use of energy efficient equipment during primary operating hours and separate system during “after hours” operation where energy and operating savings justify the dual operation. D. All newly constructed buildings, additions, and HVAC replacements, where the possibility of harmful airborne contaminants could enter the building through the ventilation system, shall have “shelter in place” control sequence included in the building control system. The sequence shall be initialized by manual switches located in the administrative and central mechanical room areas of the facility to shut down all components of the HVAC system to prevent outside air from entering the building. 1101.08 DDC control systems A. Label all components in interface and control panels. B. Provide laminated schematic diagram and attach to inside of interface panel. C. Graphics shall accurately represent facility components and architecture. Graphics shall also have room and equipment numbering that matches the county's final building numbering scheme. D. Analog BCS input and output devices shall be field calibrated or adjusted to represent actual positions at the time of installation. E. Nomenclature on inputs and outputs shall represent the true logical positions of the devices controlled. F. All external devices on the DDC system shall have I.D. labels. G. Provide sufficient schedules to cover yearly school holidays and special events. H. List spare parts needed for DDC system. I. An accurate and detailed set of record drawings, sequence of operation, and control drawings are to be provided for the HVAC system and controls. J. Provide sun/weather shields for all outside sensors. Indicate the location of all outside sensors on the design drawings. K. An exercise program shall be included as part of the DDC system to open and close automatic control valves and actuators 2 full strokes if the device has not modulated fully open and closed within 7-days.
West Virginia Administrative Code 126-172-3. Handbook on Planning School Facilities.
Chapter 11: BUILDING ENVELOPE/MEP/INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGY
1101 THERMAL ENVIRONMENT
- 1101.07 Indoor Air Quality Standard
- A. There shall be no open-flame, fuel burning heaters in student and staff occupied spaces. Direct gas fired 100% outside air makeup units for kitchen hoods or specialty locations may be considered providing they include carbon monoxide monitoring and alarming and are only used for 100% outside air makeup applications. This equipment shall be located in enclosed rooms or cabinets using outside air for combustion and be properly vented to the outside in a manner that exhausts all flue gases using appropriate piping as per ASHRAE, NFPA 54, and AGA Standard
- B. Outside air intakes shall be located no closer than 15 feet or the Standard set forth by ASHRAE Standard 62, whichever is greater, to stacks, exhaust, vents, motor vehicles and other sources of contaminates to minimize cross contamination. Distance requirements dictated by ASHRAE Standard 62 for outside air intakes from the ground and level shall also be observed. Stacks shall be designed to exhaust flue gas away from the building.
- C. Electric powered carbon monoxide monitor/alarm shall be installed in each area that produces combustion gases. The carbon monoxide monitor/alarm shall be tied into the building control system and alarm when activated.
- D. Outside air dampers shall fully close when the units are off and maintain the minimum required outside air in accordance with ASHRAE Standard 62 during occupied operation in all areas.
- E. Heat Recovery systems are recommended for 100% outside air systems. All heat recovery systems shall be constructed to limit cross over contamination.
- F. It is desired that return air dampers should be sized to produce air velocities of 1500 to 2000 fpm for thorough mixing. The damper should be set such that any deflection of air is towards the outside air to create maximum turbulence and mixing. The mixing damper shall extend across the full width of the unit even though the physical location of the return duct indicates that it could enter through the side to eliminate stratification.
- G. The HVAC cabinet insulation shall have a non-porous facing on the side exposed to the air stream in areas of potential moisture buildup (cooling coil, outside/mixed air section, etc.). The outside air ductwork located indoors shall be externally lined only.
- H. All drain pans shall be double sloped to the drain outlet, the drain outlet is to be flush with the bottom of the drain pan, and meet the requirements of ASHRAE Standard 62.
West Virginia Administrative Code 126-174-1. General.
1.1. Scope. -- This legislative rule requires each county board to investigate indoor air quality complaints in existing and schools subsequently constructed(H.B.2401, §18-9E-5.). Furthermore, this rule also provides: 1)each county will designate an official or officials who will be responsible for addressing any indoor air quality complaint; 2)set forth a policy for any party to file a complaint with the designated official or officials; 3)any indoor air quality complaint found to be valid by the designated official or officials shall be addressed by forming a plan of correction; 4)a county board should consider any documented plans of closure of a school building when forming any plan of correction; 5) each plan of correction shall be incorporated into the county board's ten-year county-wide major improvement plan.
West Virginia Administrative Code 126-174-2. Program Regulation.
2.1. When an indoor air quality complaint is filed by any party it will be necessary to complete and file with the principal of the specific school where there is a concern an Indoor Air Quality Complaint Investigation Form(WVDE IAQ 1 7/77). 2.2. The principal of the facility may investigate the complaint and respond to the complainant within ten(10) working days of the initial filing or the principal may convene the school's Indoor Air Quality Investigation Advisory Committee consisting of seven individuals. The following is a recommended list of IAQ committee members: the principal, the county superintendent or designee, the county facilities/maintenance director(which should also be the county's designated official), the complainant, a faculty senate member, a school custodian, and a local school improvement council member. The complainant may check on the status of the complaint any time during this process. 2.3. If not satisfied with the principal's response and the Indoor Air Quality Investigation Advisory Committee has not addressed this specific complaint the complainant may, within five(5) working days, ask the principal for the complaint to be reviewed by the Indoor Air Quality Investigation Advisory Committee. 2.4. The Indoor Air Quality Investigation Advisory Committee then has ten(10) working days to review and respond via the principal as to the status and plan of correction on the Indoor Air Quality Investigation Form to the complainant. The complainant may check on the status of the complaint at any time during this process. This review will finalize the complainant's school system appeal procedure. 2.5. The local board will: 1) assign a log number for each complaint filed with the principal; 2) provide a plan of correction and estimated cost for each valid complaint; 3) annually, before the thirty-first day of July, send to the West Virginia Department of Education, Office of School Transportation and Facilities a report on the number of IAQ complaints and the total estimated cost of correction for all IAQ complaints registered during the previous fiscal year; 4) each plan of correction that meets the required criteria shall be added to the county boards's ten year county-wide major improvement plan.
West Virginia Administrative Code 164-1-3. Severability
302.071. With this in mind, design architects and engineers must consider various prioritized options within the building design that address the following: a. Quality HVAC systems must be installed in all schools. These systems must be capable of providing efficient, long term climate control, complying with the minimum Standard established by the SBA performance criteria. Buildings must also be designed with durable, low maintenance building finishes; b. The HVAC Testing, Adjusting and Balancing (TAB) agent shall directly represent and is under direct contract with the LEA and shall coordinate scheduling of TAB start up and completion work with the mechanical contractor, mechanical engineer, SBA, Architect, and Construction Manager, where applicable. These services shall be paid from available project funds. c. SBA or local funds will not be used to construct building square footage that will result in the inefficient use of the facility in sacrifice of a quality HVAC system or building finishes; d. Once the square footage of the building academic and support spaces has been approved by the SBA, first consideration must be given to quality HVAC systems and building finishes. If local funds are proposed at any time throughout the project development, these funds and their intended use must be identified and approved by the SBA, and; e. HVAC control systems shall be bid on a performance-based specification, identifying at least three acceptable manufacturers, who are capable of meeting the specification. HVAC contractors shall solicit proposals from these manufacturers as the basis for their bid. Should the local Board of Education desire a specific control system, manufacturer or integration of other building systems with the HVAC controls, these systems shall be bid as alternates and any additional costs associated shall be borne by the LEA. f. Additional SBA funding for project overruns will only be considered if all items listed above are satisfied and additional funds are required in order to award the basic bid to the lowest qualified bidder(s). g. The design team shall incorporate safe schools through environmental design philosophies into all new school designs and major renovations. h. Consideration should also be given to the vulnerability and risk assessment study performed in each county of all schools and cited review comments incorporated into the school design. i. Grant recipients and school planners shall work cooperatively with the State Office of Homeland Security (OHS) and other public safety agencies during the planning and design phases of all projects. At the conclusion of all new school projects and projects that alter the building square footage or layout, the grant recipient/architect shall provide the OHS an electronic copy of the building design that complies with the requirements of the SBA school access safety provision and the most current OHS school access safety submission requirements.
West Virginia Code 18-9E-3. Air quality in new schools.
(a) In an effort to create well-ventilated school environments and notwithstanding any other provision of this code to the contrary, any new school building designed and constructed in the state by a county board, regardless of the funding source, shall be designed and constructed in compliance with the current Standard of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers Handbook (ASHRAE), the National Fire Protection Association Code (NFPA) and the code of the Building Officials and Code Administrators (BOCA). (b) Upon notice from the School Building Authority that a new public school building is occupied, the division of health shall perform radon testing in the school within the first year after occupancy and at least every five years thereafter. The county board shall provide any reasonable assistance to the division of health that is necessary to perform the radon testing. The radon testing shall include all major student-occupied areas at or below grade level. If it is determined that radon is present in amounts greater than the amount determined to be acceptable by the rules promulgated by the School Building Authority, pursuant to subsection (d) of this section, any industry accepted mitigation technique shall be used to reduce the radon level to the level or below the level determined acceptable by the School Building Authority.
West Virginia Code 18-9E-5. Investigation of indoor air quality complaints in existing schools and schools subsequently constructed.
(a) The state board, in consultation with the Division of Health, shall promulgate rules pursuant to article three-b, chapter twenty-nine-a of this code which require each county board to investigate all reports of indoor air quality problems within the county. The rules shall set forth a designated official or officials within the county school system to be responsible for addressing, pursuant to this section, any indoor air quality complaints. The rules also shall set forth a procedure for any party to file a complaint with the designated official or officials. Any indoor air quality complaint found to be valid by the designated official or officials shall be addressed by forming a plan of correction. Any county board that addresses an indoor air quality complaint is encouraged to seek any available assistance from local, state and federal agencies in both investigating the complaint and in forming the plan of correction. A county board shall consider any documented plans of closure of a school building when forming any plan of correction for that school building. The rules shall be submitted to the Legislative Oversight Commission on Education Accountability prior to the first day of September, one thousand nine hundred ninety-nine. Additionally, the rules shall set an appropriate cost for a plan of correction over which all such plans of correction shall be reported to the Legislative Oversight Commission on Education Accountability. Based upon the Legislative Oversight Commission on Education Accountability’s experience in receiving the complaints, the commission shall submit a recommendation for funding the plans of correction. (b) Furthermore, each plan of correction shall be incorporated into each county board’s ten-year county-wide major improvement plan set forth in section sixteen [§ 18-9D-16], article nine-d of this chapter. Also pursuant to section sixteen, article nine-d of this chapter, the state board may restrict the use of the necessary funds or otherwise allocate funds from moneys appropriated by the Legislature for those purposes set forth in section nine [§ 18-9A-9], article nine-a of this chapter: Provided, That nothing in this subsection shall be interpreted as requiring that a county board make addressing an air quality complaint a priority over other projects in the county board’s ten-year county-wide major improvement plan.