State law encourages districts to provide professional development for school personnel on cultural competency.
Virginia Administrative Code 8VAC20-23-130. Professional Studies Requirements for Early/Primary Education, Elementary Education, and Middle Education Endorsements.
Professional studies requirements for early/primary education, elementary education, and middle education: 21 semester hours. These requirements may be taught in integrated coursework or modules.
Human development and learning (birth through adolescence): 3 semester hours.
- a. Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of the physical, social, emotional, speech and language, and intellectual development of children and the ability to use this understanding in guiding learning experiences and relating meaningfully to students.
- b. The interaction of children with individual differences - economic, social, racial, ethnic, religious, physical, and cognitive- should be incorporated to include skills contributing to an understanding of developmental disabilities and developmental issues related to, but not limited to, low socioeconomic status; attention deficit disorders; developmental disorders; gifted education, including the use of multiple criteria to identify gifted students; substance abuse; trauma, including child abuse and neglect and other adverse childhood experiences; and family disruptions.
Curriculum and instruction: 3 semester hours.
- a. Early/primary education preK-3 or elementary education preK-6 curriculum and instruction: 3 semester hours.
- (1) Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding of the principles of learning; the application of skills in discipline-specific methodology; varied and effective methods of communication with and among students; selection and use of materials, including media and contemporary technologies; and selection, development, and use of appropriate curricula, methodologies, and materials that support and enhance student learning and reflect the research on unique, age-appropriate, and culturally relevant curriculum and pedagogy.
- (2) Understanding of the principles of online learning and online instructional strategies and the application of skills to deliver online instruction shall be included.
- (3) Instructional practices that are sensitive to culturally and linguistically diverse learners, including English learners, gifted and talented students, and students with disabilities, and appropriate for the preK-3 or preK-6 endorsement shall be included.
Classroom and behavior management: 3 semester hours.
- a. Skills in this area shall contribute to an understanding and application of research-based classroom and behavior management techniques, classroom community building, positive behavior supports, and individual interventions, including techniques that promote emotional well-being and teach and maintain behavioral conduct and skills consistent with norms, Standard, and rules of the educational environment.
- b. This area shall address diverse approaches based upon culturally responsive behavioral, cognitive, affective, social and ecological theory and practice.
- c. Approaches should support professionally appropriate practices that promote positive redirection of behavior, development of social skills, and of self-discipline.
- d. Knowledge and an understanding of various school crisis management and safety plans and the demonstrated ability to create a safe, orderly classroom environment shall be included.
- e. The link between classroom management and students' ages shall be understood and demonstrated in techniques used in the classroom.