State law requires districts to implement school-wide positive behavioral supports or tiered frameworks.
Louisiana Administrative Code 28 CI 105. Pupil Appraisal Services
A. Pupil appraisal services comprise an integral part of the total instructional program of the LEA. The purpose of pupil appraisal services is to assist students who have academic, behavioral, and/or communication challenges, adjustment difficulties, or other special needs which are adversely impacting the student's educational performance by providing services to students, parents, teachers, and other school personnel. These services include, but are not limited to the examples provided below:
- assistance to teachers and other school personnel in the development and implementation of behavioral and/or instructional interventions through a district's Response to Intervention (RTI) process, positive behavior support process, or other intervention processes;
- provision of support services to non-disabled students with academic, behavioral and/or communication difficulties;
- consultation with parents, students, teachers, and other personnel on topics such as instructional or behavioral modifications, exceptional students, and child development;
- provision of staff development to school personnel on topics such as assessment, interventions, or child development;
- evaluation of students to determine whether they are exceptional and in need of special education and related services;
- interpretation of evaluation findings to school personnel and parents;
- provision of related services to students with exceptionalities; and
- referral to other appropriate agencies for services when warranted. B. Pupil appraisal personnel are not limited to providing services solely to students referred for an individual evaluation. Many students experiencing academic, behavior and/or communication difficulties may be helped through recommendations made by pupil appraisal personnel for use in the general education classroom, enabling the student to benefit from instruction in the general education curriculum and eliminating the need for referral for an individual evaluation. Major functions of pupil appraisal personnel should include being child/student advocates and assisting students to remain in and profit from the general education curriculum whenever possible. When a student, as a result of an individual evaluation, qualifies for special education and related services, pupil appraisal personnel will recommend those services and supports needed to assist the teachers and parents of the student in providing appropriate special educational services in the least restrictive environment.
Louisiana Administrative Code 28 CI 1511. School Psychological Services
A. Definition. School Psychological Services include but are not limited to:
- administering psychological and educational tests, and other assessment procedures;
- interpreting assessment results;
- obtaining, integrating, and interpreting information about student behavior and conditions relating to learning (which may also include assisting in the development of academic intervention strategies, progress monitoring, evaluating intervention and service delivery outcomes, conducting functional behavior assessments, and conducting program evaluations);
- consulting with other staff members in planning school programs to meet the special educational needs of students as indicated by psychological tests, interviews, direct observation, and behavioral evaluations;
- planning and managing a program of psychological services, including psychological counseling for students and parents (which may also include implementing and/or monitoring interventions, conducting social skills training, anger management/conflict resolution training, study skills training, substance abuse prevention, crisis prevention and intervention, parent skills training, and coordinating services with other community agencies.); and
- assisting in developing positive behavioral intervention strategies.
Louisiana Administrative Code 28 CI 1513. School Social Work Services
A. Definition. Social Work Services in schools include but are not limited to:
- preparing a social or developmental history on a student with a disability;
- providing group and individual counseling with the student and the family. (This may include linking them to community resources, helping them to actively participate in the student's educational process, and providing crisis intervention services in the event of a death, illness, or community trauma. The school social worker shall maintain adequate safeguards for the privacy and confidentiality of information, and maintain data that is relevant to planning management and evaluation of school social work services.);
- working in partnership with parents and others on those problems in a student's living situation (home, school, and community) that affect the student's adjustment in school. (The school social worker will advocate for services to be provided in the context of multicultural understanding and competence, as well as work collaboratively as a part of an interdisciplinary team that will enhance the student's academic performance.);
- mobilizing school and community resources to enable the student to learn as effectively as possible in his or her educational program; and
- assisting in developing positive behavioral intervention strategies to address behaviors of concern that will enhance the student's ability to benefit from his or her educational experience.
Louisiana Administrative Code 28 CI 301. Response to Intervention
A. The Response to Intervention (RTI) process is a three-tiered approach to providing services and interventions to struggling learners and/or students with challenging behaviors at increasing levels of intensity. Essential components of the process include three tiers of instruction and intervention, use of standard protocols and/or problem-solving methods, and an integrated data collection/assessment system to inform decisions at each tier of instruction/intervention. The process incorporates increasing intensities of instruction and/or intervention that are provided to students in direct proportion to their individual needs. Embedded in each tier is a set of unique support structures or activities that help teachers implement, with fidelity, research-based curricula, instructional practices, and interventions designed to improve student achievement. RTI is designed for use when making decisions in both general and special education, creating a well-integrated system of instruction and intervention guided by student outcome data.
Louisiana Administrative Code 28 CXV 1304. Classroom Management Training for School Staff [Formerly § 1302]
A. The school master plans for improving behavior and discipline required of LEAs shall make provision for pre-service and ongoing grade-appropriate classroom management training for teachers, principals, and other appropriate school personnel regarding positive behavioral supports and reinforcement, conflict resolution, mediation, cultural competence, restorative practices, guidance and discipline, and adolescent development. B. LEAs shall provide ongoing classroom management courses and regularly review discipline data from each school to determine what additional classroom management training is needed, if any, and what additional classroom support activities should be provided by the principal and school administration.
Louisiana Revised Statutes 17:252 School master plans for supporting student behavior and discipline.
(1) The school master plans required of city, parish, and other local public school boards by this Section shall make provision for pre-service and ongoing grade appropriate classroom management training for teachers, principals, and other appropriate school personnel regarding positive behavioral supports and reinforcement, conflict resolution, mediation, cultural competence, restorative practices, guidance and discipline, and adolescent development.
Louisiana Revised Statutes 17:416.2. Supervision of suspended or expelled students; alternative education programs.
(b) In an effort to support the on-time graduation of students who are suspended, expelled, or at high risk for dropping out or entry into the juvenile justice system, academic, behavioral, and mental health interventions must be provided. Interventions offered shall include but not be limited to the following: (i) Academic interventions and supports: (aa) Targeted academic interventions focused on assessed needs in math and reading using an evidence-based and research-supported curriculum. (bb) Use of validated monthly assessments to monitor individual student academic progress. (cc) Implementation of research-supported instructional strategies such as differentiated instruction, experiential education, project-based learning, and computer-assisted instruction to support assessed needs and content mastery. (dd) Opportunities to participate in credit recovery to support progression towards on-time graduation. (ee) On-site access to at least one career or vocational certification option. (ii) Behavioral interventions and supports: (aa) Positive behavioral supports with a high ratio of positive reinforcement over punishment. (bb) Behavioral shaping steps aligned to assessed behavioral needs and goals. (cc) Mentoring and frequent behavioral feedback focused on individualized shaping steps for students enrolled. (dd) Successive approximations and reinforcements to develop more complex social behaviors. (iii) Mental health interventions and supports: (aa) Evidence-based cognitive behavioral interventions to address, anger, impulsivity, and aggression. (bb) Interventions to address past childhood traumas, including forms of abuse and neglect, being a victim of or a witness to violence, and involvement in natural disasters. (cc) Interventions to address substance use and to prevent substance abuse. (dd) Interventions to build life skills and social skills in order to increase employability and success in the community.
Student Behavior and Discipline
School systems should identify and implement a system of behavioral intervention response that aligns with the MTSS framework